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Jefferson County was created by the Territorial Legislature on November 2, 1829, from parts of Arkansas and Pulaski counties and was named for Thomas Jefferson, U.S. President. Pine Bluff is the County Seat.

Pine Bluff is the state’s fourth largest city where a number of historically important homes can be found. There are three museums, The Arts and Science Center for Southeast Arkansas, the Arkansas Railroad Museum and the Pine Bluff-Jefferson County Museum. The Bayou Meto Wildlife Management Area is flooded each fall to attract ducks. Hunting in the county is a popular sport and attracts visitors from all around the country.

The landscape of the western third is pine-covered, rolling hills, and the eastern two-thirds is rich, fertile Delta farmland. Jefferson County is known for the fertile quality of its soil and has always been one of the leading cotton producers in the state.